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Alma Resource Management

Working with the Metadata Editor in the Institution and Network Zones. Includes indication and normalization rules.

Normalization Rules

Normalization (norm) rules are used to change and/or update metadata in MARC21 bibliographic (bib) and holdings records. Normalization rules are created in the MD Editor. Normalization rules require a normalization process for normalization rules to be run as a job or applied to import and integration profiles that import MARC records into Alma.


Normalization rules can be applied to MARC records:

  • In the MD Editor on individual records:
    • Appling norm rule changed from the norm rule preview when testing a norm rule on a MARC record
    • "Enhance the record" (Editing Actions>Enhance the record)
  • To a set of records 
  • In import and integration profiles used to import MARC records into Alma 


Normalization rules can be applied by a SUNY institution to:

  • Institution Zone (IZ) only records
    • MARC21 bib records
    • MARC21 holdings records 
  • To add local extensions to Network Zone (NZ) linked records


NOTE: Normalization rules can only be applied to NZ records by the Network Zone Coordinator. When previewing a rule for a Network record, the following message is displayed: "Note that the rules will be applied only to local fields when the normalization process is run." 

Normalization Rules Training Videos

Roles Required to Create Normalization Rules

One of the following roles is required to create a normalization rule:

  • Cataloger
  • Catalog Manager
  • Catalog Administrator


The following role is required to create a normalization process:

  • Catalog Administrator

Placement of Normalization Rules

The placement of new rules is very important when creating normalization (norm) rules because it will impact  what processes and functionality can use the norm rules in Alma. The "Placement of new rules" should be configured to local when creating or duplicating norm rules.  A Network (network icon) or a local (house icon) norm rule can be used on a bib record in the MD Editor, but a Network created norm rule cannot be used in a norm process. Local rules can only be used on IZ only records when using "Enhance the record" in the MD Editor. Network rules can only be used on NZ linked bib records when using "Enhance the record" in the MD Editor.

To Change the "Placement of new rules" in the:


To Change the "Placement of new rules" in the current MD Editor:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Click File>Options (Ctrl+O)
  3. Click the local radio button under "Placement of new rules"
  4. Click Save


To Change the "Placement of new rules" in the the New MD Editor:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Click on the Records or Template tab
    • Currently Placement Options is not under the "New" menu when the Rules tab is selected
  3. Click New>Placement Options
  4. Click the local radio button under "Placement of new rules"
  5. Click Save

Normalization Rules Steps Outline

The following steps are required to use a normalization rule on a set of bib records as a job, in an import or integration profile, and/or "Enhance the record" in the MD Editor:

The following steps are required to allow a norm rule to be applied to a set of records in Alma:

  1. Create a local norm rule
  2. Test the norm rule in the MD Editor
  3. Create a norm process
  4. Apply the norm process to a set of records

Syntax for Normalization Rules

Normalization (norm) rules are written using drools logic. Indication rules contain:

  • A rule or multiple rules
  • At least one condition
  • An action or actions


Norm Rule Format and Order:

 

Norm Rule Exampled showing the parts that make up a norm rule

 

Conditions for Normalization Rules

Conditions are applied to record elements in a MARC record such as fields, indicators, subfields, field/subfield content. Conditions can be defined at the entire rule level (WHEN), or at a specific action level (IF). The following are conditions that can be used in an indication rule:

 

Elements used in Normalization Rules

Types of elements:

 

Control fields are made up of the following elements:


NOTE: Control fields can be opened in a form editor in the MD Editor using Ctrl+F (Editing Actions>Open Form Editor). Open the fixed field in the MD Editor to view the position and length.

 

Data fields elements that are used in normalization rules: 

 

The following elements can be used in normalization rules conditions and actions:

Control Field Actions for Normalization Rules

Control Field (fixed field) actions should only be applied to IZ only records in Alma that are not linked to the NZ or the CZ.
 

 

Data Field Actions for Normalization Rules

Use the data field actions in:

  • IZ Only records for any MARC field
    • Do not make changes to non-local MARC if the IZ only record is going to be linked to the NZ
  • NZ linked bib records for SUNY defined local MARC fields

The following data field actions are available for use in Alma as of March April 2021:

  • addCreatingAgency
  • addModifyingAgency
  • replaceModifyingAgency
     

Wild Cards & Special Characters for Normalization Rules

 

Using "if" Statements in Normalization Rules

An "if" statements is a condition that is combined with an action:

  • The action will be applied to the field when the condition in the "if" statement is met
  • The action will not be applied to the field when the condition in the "if" statement conditions is not met
  • "if" statements can be used with a condition containing elements or with TRUE
  • "if" statements can be used with all actions except, moveSubfieldsToEndOfField 
  • "if" statements cannot have more than one condition and element
  • “if” statements can be used to make the rule more granular so changes are only made “if” the condition is met


How to use "if" statements in a norm rule:


"if" Statement with a Condition with Elements:

 

"if" Statement Using the TRUE Condition:

 

Priorities

Priorities (or saliences) can be applied to a rule when a rule contains multiple rules that apply actions to the same MARC fields. 

 

Constructing a Normalization Rule

To construct a norm rule:

  1. The first line begins with rule and is followed by the “name of the rule” in quotes
    • Examples;
      • rule “remove 597”
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
  2. when comes after the line with rule “rule name”
    • Example;
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
        when
  3. Condition(s) and element(s) are in the line after then 
    • Examples;
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
        when
        exists “597”
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
        when
        exists “597.a.Estate of Donor Name*” AND exists “597.d.2016\\.”
  4. then comes after the line with the condition(s)
    • Example;
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
        when
        exists “597.a.Estate of Donor Name*” AND exists “597.d.2016\\.”
        then
  5. The action(s) and element(s) is in the line after then
    • Each action must be in its own line if there is more than one action and element in a rule
    • Each action will be performed in the order they appear
    • Example;
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
        when
        exists “597.a.Estate of Donor Name*” AND exists “597.d.2016\\.”
        then
        removeField “597”
  6. end comes after the action(s) and element(s) line(s)
    • Example;
      • rule “remove 597|a|Estate of Donor Name”
        when
        exists “597.a.Estate of Donor Name*” AND exists “597.d.2016\\.”
        then
        removeField “597”
        end
         

Creating a New Normalization Rule in the MD Editor

To create a new norm rule in the MD Editor:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement Options" for the "Placement of new rules" is set to local
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click on New>Normalization
  5. The Normalization rule properties screen displays
    1. Name*: start the name with the campus 3-letter identifier
    2. Description*: copy and paste the name or add more descriptive information about the rule 
    3. Type: [Select Drool - default]
    4. Click on  the radio button next to Shared
    5. Click in the Enabled check box
    6. Click Save   
  6. The MD Editor main pane opens
  7. Begin writing the rule using the norm rule format
    • Rule "name of rule"
      when
      Condition or Conditions (using Boolean terms)
      Action or Actions
      end
  8. Click Save
    Creating a new norm rule in the MD Editor using the norm rule format


     *Correct any syntax errors if they display upon saving
  9. Test the rule
  10. Click "X" to close the rule

Creating a Normalization Rule for Local Fields

SUNY local fields are the only MARC fields that should be added, edited, or deleted from Network Zone (NZ) linked bib records.

Local extensions ($$9 local):

  1. Must be added to the rule when creating new local fields in bib records using a normalization rule
  2. Local extension ($$9 local) can also be added to local MARC fields that were incorrectly created by using "Add Field" instead of "Add Local Extension"


Creating a rule for SUNY local fields:

Normalization rules need to be constructed in a specific order when adding a local extension to a SUNY local MARC field. The local MARC field needs to be created first. The field must contain a value in order for it to be created. Then, the local extension subfield ($$9 local) can be added.

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement of new rules" is configured to local
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click on New>Normalization
  5. Begin constructing the rule as follows:
  6. Click Save
  7. Test the rule on a record
     

Adding a local extension to an existing MARC field (must be a SUNY configure local field):

A local extensions ($$9) can be added to MARC fields that have been configured as local in Alma. If a user adds a local field using "Add Field" instead of "Add Local Extensions", the user can add the local extension using a norm rule if they do not want to delete the incorrect field and start over.

To add a local extension to a local MARC field:

  1. Create a norm rule
  2. Apply the norm rule


To create a norm rule that add a local extension:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement of new rules" is configured to local
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click on New>Normalization
  5. Begin constructing the rule as follows:
  6. Click Save
  7. Test the rule


Apply the Norm Rule from Preview:

  1. Starting with the bib record opened in the MD Editor
  2. Click on the "Editor split mode (F6)"icon
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click on the Normalization rule type
  5. Search for the rule
  6. Open the "Add local extension" rule
  7. Edit the rule to change the MARC tag and value in the rule actions if applicable:
    • Change MARC tag in the action and "if" statement
    • Change the value in the "if" statement of the action
  8. Click Save
    • Note: the rule does not need to be save to make the changes
  9. Click Preview
  10. Click Apply Changes if the rule is applied correctly
  11. Click Save and Release Record (Ctrl+Alt+R) when editing the bib record

Edit the "Add Local Extension" rule MARC Tags in action and "if" statement, subfield in "if" statement if applicable, change value in "if" statement


Edited "Add Local Extension" rule and click Preview


"Add Local Extension" rule changes properly applied, click "Apply Changes"

Reordering Subfields Using a Rule

Subfields can be added to existing MARC fields using the addSubField action in a norm rule:

  • Subfields being added in a rule will be appended to the end of the MARC field
  • Subfields can be reordered by using the moveSubfieldsToEndOfField action in the rule
  • Actions are applied in the order they appear in the rule therefor, moveSubfieldsToEndOfField must come after the newly added subfield in a rule
  • moveSubfieldsToEndOfField action can be used alone in a rule to reorder existing subfields in a MARC field
  • "if" statements cannot be used with the moveSubfieldsToEndOfField action


Constructing a rule to: 

  1. Add a subfield(s) and reorder the subfields
  2. Reorder existing subfield(s) in a MARC field


Constructing a rule adding subfields and reordering the subfields:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement of new rules" is set to local
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click New>Normalization
  5. Write the rule (example below):
    rule "add 597|c|Gift"
    when
    not exists "597.c.Gift"
    then
    addSubField "597.c.Gift"
    moveSubfieldsToEndOfField "597" "c,a,d,9"
    end
  6. Click Save
  7. Test the rule on a record
  8. Create a norm process
  9. Run the norm process on a set of records in Alma

    Reorder subfields using a norm rule

 

Constructing a rule to reorder existing subfields in a MARC field:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement of new rules" is set to local
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click New>Normalization
  5. Write the rule (example below):
    rule "add 597|c|Gift"
    when
    exists "597"
    then
    moveSubfieldsToEndOfField "597" "c,a,d,9"
    end
  6. Click Save
  7. Test the rule on a record
  8. Test the rule on a record
  9. Create a norm process
  10. Run the norm process on a set of records in Alma
     
  11. Reorder subfields in a norm rule

Duplicating an Existing Normalization Rule

Normalization (norm) rules should not be edited by a user who did not create the norm rule. Norm rules that begin with SUNY should never be edited by other users in SUNY because any changes made to the rule will impact all SUNY processes that use them. There is no way to prevent rules from being edited by other users in Alma. It is recommended that users duplicate norm rule created by another SUNY user when the user wants to use and/or edit the rule for their own purposes.

Norm rules can be duplicated:


To duplicate an existing bib created by another user when the rule is open in the MD Editor Main Pane:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement options" to make sure the "Placement of new rules" is set to the correct zone
  3. Click on the Rule tab
  4. Click on the Normalization rule type
  5. Open the rule in the main pane of the MD Editor
    • Left-click to directly open the rule in the main pane
    • Right-click and select edit to open the rule in the main pane
  6. Click Rule Actions>Duplicate
  7. The Normalization Rules Properties screen opens
    1. Edit the name:
      • Begin the rule name with the Institutions three-letter Alma identifier
      • Rename the rule to reflect the rule changes
    2. Edit the description to reflect the rule
    3. Keep Shared and Enabled checked
    4. Click Save
  8. Edit the rule
  9. Click Save
    • Edit any syntax errors that prevent the rule from being saved and Save the rule again
  10. Test the rule
  11. Click "X" to close the rule

 

To duplicate an existing bib record created by another user from the ruled list:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Check the "Placement options" to make sure the "Placement of new rules" is set to the correct zone
  3. Click on the Rule tab
  4. Click on the Normalization rule type
  5. Search for the rule to be duplicated
    • Use the search box or
    • Scroll to find the rule
  6. Right-click on the rule
  7. Select "Duplicate"
  8. The Normalization Rules Properties screen opens
    1. Edit the name:
      • Begin the rule name with the Institutions three-letter Alma identifier
      • Rename the rule to reflect the rule changes
    2. Edit the description to reflect the rule
    3. Keep Shared and Enabled checked
    4. Click Save
  9. Edit the rule
  10. Click Save
    • ​​​​​​​Edit any syntax errors that prevent the rule from being saved and Save the rule again
  11. Test the rule
  12. Click "X" to close the rule

Testing Normalization Rules

Normalization rules can be tested on a bib record in the MD Editor in the following manner:


To test a normalization rule when the bib record is opened in the MD Editor first:

  1. Open a bib record in the MD Editor
  2. Click on the Editor split mode icon (F6)
  3. Click on the Rules tab
  4. Click on the Normalization rule type
  5. Search for the indication rule to be tested
  6. Left-click on the indication rule to open it on the right-side of the main pane
  7. Click Preview
  8. A preview of the rule changes will display
    • Note: Fields that have been added will display at the bottom of the MARC record preview. Once saved it will display in MARC tag order
  9. Click Back to Normalization Rule
  10. Edit, preview, and save the rule if the rule did not work as expected in step 9
  11. Click "X" to close the indication rule
  12. Release the bib record (Records Actions>Release Record / Alt+Shft+R)

Click Preview to view the norm rule in a bib record


Click Back to Normalization Rule to return to the rule after viewing how the rule will be applied



To test a normalization rule when the rule is opened in the MD Editor first:

  1. Open a normalization rule in the MD Editor
  2. Click on the Editor split mode icon (F6)
  3. Click the Records tab
  4. Click on the MARC21 Bib record type
  5. Search for the bib record
  6. Left-click to open the bib record on the right-hand side of the main pane
  7. Click on the rule on the left-side of the main pane
  8. Click Preview
  9. A preview of the rule changes will display
  10. Click Back to Normalization Rule
  11. Edit, preview, and save the rule if the rule did not work as expected in step 9
  12. Click "X" to close the indication rule
  13. Release the bib record (Records Actions>Release Record / Alt+Shft+R)

Click Preview to test the norm rule and see how it will display


Click Back to Normalization Rule after viewing the rule changes being applied to the MARC record

Creating a Normalization Process

A normalization (norm) process is required to apply a norm rule to a set of records or to import processes.

Pre-requisites to creating a norm process:

  1. Catalog Administrator or General System Administrator role
  2. A norm rule 


Norm Processes can created for:


To create a norm process for bibliographic records:

  1. Go to Configuration>Resources>Cataloging>Metadata Configuration
  2. Click on the MARC21 Bibliographic link under Active Profiles
  3. Click on the Normalization Process tab
  4. Click Add Process
  5. Process Details - General Information screen opens
    • Name: [Type in name]
      • Name of the process will be the name of the job
    • Description: [Type in description]
    • Status: [Keep Active]
  6. Click Next
  7. Process Details - Add Tasks screen open
    1. Click Add Tasks
    2. Check the box next to MarcDroolNormalization
    3. Click Add and Close
  8. Click Next
  9. Select the norm rule from the Drools File Key drop-down menu
  10. Click Save
    • Adds the norm process to the list of existing processes
  11. Exit from Configuration

 

To create a norm process for holdings records:

  1. Go to Configuration>Resources>Cataloging>Metadata Configuration
  2. Click on the MARC21 Holding link under Active Profiles
  3. Click on the Normalization Process tab
  4. Click Add Process
  5. Process Details - General Information screen opens
    • Name: [Type in name]
      • Name of the process will be the name of the job
    • Description: [Type in description]
    • Status: [Keep Active]
  6. Click Next
  7. Process Details - Add Tasks screen open
    1. Click Add Tasks
    2. Check the box next to MarcDroolNormalization
    3. Click Add and Close
  8. Click Next
  9. Select the norm rule from the Drools File Key drop-down menu
  10. Click Save
    • Adds the norm process to the list of existing processes
  11. Exit from Configuration

Running a Normalization Process on a Set of Records

Prerequisites for running a norm process on a set of record:

  1. Catalog Administrator or Catalog Manager role
  2. Norm process created using a norm rule
  3. A set created for the purpose of a norm rule being applied to it


To run a norm process on a set of bib records:

  1. Go to Admin>Manage Jobs and Sets>Run a Job
  2. Search for the norm process by name or description
  3. Click the radio button next to the name of the norm process
  4. Click Next
  5. Search for the set of records the norm process will be applied to
  6. Click on the radio button next to the name of the set
  7. Click Next
  8. The Drool File Key will default to the rule in the norm process
    • DO NOT change the Drool File Key
  9. Click Next
  10. Review the job
  11. Click Submit
  12. Click Confirm
  13. The job will run
    • The time it takes the job to run depends on the size of the set and complexity of the rule
  14. Review the job results
    1. Go to Admin>Manage Jobs and Set>Monitor Job
    2. Click on the History tab
    3. Click Report from the ellipses of the job
    4. The report provides the user with basic information
      • Records skipped
      • Network linked records with local extensions
      • Community linked records with local extensions
      • Records with exceptions

Prerequisites for running a norm process on a set of record:

  1. Catalog Administrator or Catalog Manager role
  2. Norm process created using a norm rule
  3. A set created for the purpose of a norm rule being applied to it


To run a norm process on a set of records:

  1. Go to Admin>Manage Jobs and Sets>Run a Job
  2. Search for the "Change holding information job"
  3. Click the radio button next to the name of the job
  4. Click Next
  5. Search for the set of records the norm process will be applied to
  6. Click on the radio button next to the name of the set
  7. Click Next
  8. Click on the box across from "Correct the data using normalization rules"
  9. Select the MARC21 Holdings process from the "Correct the data using normalization rules" drop-down list
  10. Click Next
  11. Review the job
  12. Click Submit
  13. Click Confirm
  14. The job will run
    • The time it takes the job to run depends on the size of the set and complexity of the rule
  15. Review the job results
    1. Go to Admin>Manage Jobs and Set>Monitor Job
    2. Click on the History tab
    3. Click Report from the ellipses of the job
    4. The report provides the user with basic information

Deleting a Normalization Process

A user may choose to delete a normalization (norm) process once they no longer need to use it.  

The following norm processes can be deleted:


To delete a bibliographic norm process:

  1. Go to Configuration>Resources>Cataloging>Metadata Configuration
  2. Click on the MARC21 Bibliographic link under Active Profiles
  3. Click on the Normalization Process tab
  4. Click Delete from the ellipses of the norm process being deleted
  5. Click Confirm
  6. Exit from Configuration


To delete a holdings norm process:

  1. Go to Configuration>Resources>Cataloging>Metadata Configuration
  2. Click on the MARC21 Holding link under Active Profiles
  3. Click on the Normalization Process tab
  4. Click Delete from the ellipses of the norm process being deleted
  5. Click Confirm
  6. Exit from Configuration

Deleting a Normalization Rule

Normalization (norm) rules should only be deleted by the user who created them. Never delete norm rules  beginning with SUNY or that have been created by other users. Once a rule is delete it cannot be restored.

Pre-requisites to deleting norm rules:

  1. Must be created by the user who wants to delete the rule
  2. Any norm processes using the norm rule must be deleted first


Norm rules can be deleted:


To delete a norm rule from the main pain of the MD Editor:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Click on the Rules tab
  3. Click on the Normalization rule type
  4. Search for the norm rule to be deleted
  5. Left-click on the rule
  6. The rule opens in the main pane of the MD Editor
  7. Click Rule Actions>Delete
  8. Click Yes when the confirmation message pops-up

 

To delete a norm rule from the rules list:

  1. Open the MD Editor
  2. Click on the Rules tab
  3. Click on the Normalization rule type
  4. Search for the norm rule to be deleted
  5. Right-click on the rule
  6. Select Delete
  7. Click Yes when the confirmation message pops-up

"Enhance the Record"

"Enhance the record" allows users to enhance a MARC21 bib or holdings record using normalization processes. The normalization process name will appear in the drop-down menu when selecting "Enhance the record" from the "Editing Actions" menu in the MD Editor.


The zone of the record impacts what norm processes display in the "Enhance from record" drop-down list:

  • IZ only bib and holdings records will display norm processes that contain norm rules created locally
  • NZ linked bib records will only display norm processes that contain norm rules created at the network
    • IMPORTANT!!!: Network norm processes can only be created by the Network Zone Coordinator
    • Contact the Network Zone Coordinator at info@slcny.libanswers.com if a SUNY institution would like to have a norm process added to the Network


In order for normalization processes to display in the drop-down menu for "Choose Normalization Task" the following needs to exist:

  1. A norm rule
  2. A Normalization process 


"Enhance the record" can be applied to:


To enhance a bib record in the MD Editor:

  1. Open a bib record in the MD Editor
  2. Click Editing Actions>Enhance the record (Ctrl+Alt+E/W)
  3. The Enhance the Record screen pops-up
    1. Choose Normalization Type: [Select the Normalization process]
    2. Click Ok
  4. Click Save>Save and Release Record when done editing the bib record

 

To enhance a holdings record in the MD Editor:

  1. Open a holdings record in the MD Editor
  2. Click Editing Actions>Enhance the record (Ctrl+Alt+E/W)
  3. The Enhance the Record screen pops-up
    1. Choose Normalization Type: [Select the Normalization process]
    2. Click Ok
  4. Click Save>Save and Release Record when done editing the bib record